Wednesday, June 14, 2017

Teaching and the Importance of Questioning

QUESTIONING is as perennial as Teaching but not too much importance is accorded to Questioning when it comes to determining factors for effective learning. Today, Instruction precedes Questioning as a priority factor of success. Based on the feedback i received from participating teachers during my workshop on "Effective Questioning Skills" where we discussed approaches like Question Matrix, 5W & H and few others it  came to fore that the real premise for ineffectiveness of Questioning was not as much to do with the tools and techniques but the reason for using Questioning. The role of a good teacher is not to prepare learner for securing good marks in exams but to prepare him for life by instilling in him/ her the art of asking questions and asking the right ones. Somewhere we, as teachers, are unable to inculcate the skill of Questioning in the learner as we our self have fuzzy thoughts about the skill, our own conviction and trust in "Questioning" is lacking.

Given that the art of Questioning is as old as Teaching and all of us
are well versed with Socratic approach to Questioning, his interrogative ways of extracting knowledge still we are unable to implement Questioning effectively in our teaching. As teachers, we need to realise that Questioning has a much larger role to play in our teaching and education than just be a parameter for gauging pupil's success in exam. The need of the hour is to understand the principles of questioning and then integrate it in the teaching process.The fundamentals of Questioning are very well presented in the book titled "The Art of Questioning" by Joshua Girling Fitch. This all time classic book delves deep into the problem of why questioning is ineffective and then suggests ways to address those highlighted gaps. I am sharing here some of the key tenets of Questioning (derived from the mentioned book) that would help approach the subject in the right way. 
  • Questioning to be treated more as a process than an outcome, the focus being on ensuring that Questioning builds up the requisite knowledge in the learner.
  • Questioning is as much about understanding how much a person knows as about how less he/ she knows. This will make the learner inquisitive and take ownership for his/ her learning
  • Questioning serves 2 key purpose :
    • Questioning of Instruction while actually delivering a lesson
    • Questioning of Examination while testing the knowledge of the learner post delivery of lecture
  • Question posed to the learner should ensure an effort on part of the learner while answering. This effort could be in the form of memory, imagination, judgement, perception, and like. While answering the learner should feel challenged enough and should mentally exert himself/ herself and put thinking in action.
  • Framing questions which are vague, wide and indefinite to be avoided 
  • The language of the Question be as simple as possible and in as few words as possible. Further the question be adapted to the age and capacity of the learners.
  • Questions should say only that much which would elicit the learner to say as much as possible.
  • Facts should not be put in the question. Rather an attempt should be made to educe every fact from the learners
  • Questioning should not encourage guesswork as this will adversely affect the "thinking" process in learners and breed shallowness and deception in learners.
  • Questioning is more of an implicit trait rather than an explicit one. It's sole purpose is to trigger a mental activity in the learner to make him/ her aware about the level of ignorance and the effort required. 
The book describes many other principles also but even if the the above mentioned principles are remembered and put in practice by teachers, it will definitely ensure a well integrated approach towards Teaching and Questioning. A well balanced approach to Questioning would help the learner become not only a knowledge seeker but a self-reliant life-long learner as well.

All said and done, the implementation is as good as the implementor. Teacher being the key carrier and communicator of Questioning process, the passion to get the best out of every pupil will go a long way in ensuring success of Questioning as yet another effective Teaching approach.

Monday, April 23, 2012

EDUCATION - Heading towards Learning or Information Overload ?

EDUCATION seems to be losing its sheen. The word no longer connotes Learning but only Information. Though there has been a paradigm shift in Education in terms of trends, technologies, teaching methods, teaching models, learning approcahes but the outcome still remains the same - bombardment of information to the learners. Simplification of a single topic or theme seems to be getting lost in complexity of information and data. We have not moved away from our reliance on text books, etc. We may talk big about technology in education but we seem to be far away from applying it in our teaching-learning. There is a dire need to look at the situation from new perspective(s), some of which are - 1. evloved mindset of educators in understanding the dynamics of education in the current times, 2. educators' comfort level with the latest in education, 3. delievering tools to comprehend, analyse, intrepret, etc. to learners instead of just information. The whole idea of bombarding child with as much infomation and data about a subject/ topic may not be useful as learners need time to digest and understand. The outome is a child losing interest in the subject and then in studies altogether. A change needed in determining what would constitute our education and a though need to be put on 1. what gets taught, 2. how much gets taught, 3. how it gets taught, 4. why it needs to be taught. 

Lets teach and raise our children in a way that they become self-capable learner of life and not only academics !! 

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Homeschooling as an Alternative Education option in India - What is the Future ?

Homeschooling as an "alternative education" option is not familiar to a large percentage of educators/ parents in India and the reasons for the same are plenty. The context in which the Indian Education System exists/ prevails doesn't encouarge "homeschooling". Though unconsciously parents do "homeschool" their children during the early years but when it comes to adopting it as an "alternative education" method, parents/ educators have their reservations. I have come across various individual and community driven groups/ forums on Homeschooling but still a lot needs to be done to make it more popular. Some of the obvious reasons for "Homeschooling" not being so popular in India are as follows:

  • The Education system is very "degree/ certification" driven with lot of focus on earning them than actually "learning". A person's worth is gauged by the number of degrees he/ she possess and not by the knowledge/ learning acquired.
  • The non-flexibility in the education system is a big hindrance even if parents decide to homeschool their kids. The parents can never be sure whether their child/ children would find a seat in a school if they opt to put the child/ children back in the traditional school system at a later stage. The parents still struggle a lot for gaining a seat in the regular school.
  • Content Driven Education - We still adhere to
  • Status Quotient of Parents - Our system is still run by way of "going for the brand" where the intelligence of a child or status of parents is gauged by the school the child/ children studies in. So, it is the effort of every parent to put the child/ children in the most popular brand (by hook or crook)
  • The options for "alternative schooling" in India are very limited and for "homeschooling" there's hardly anything that exists except for NIOS (Open School). But generally NIOS is considered/ perceived as an option for dropouts and academically low performing students.
  • Obession with the entity "School" - The Indian society hasn't really opened up to the "homeschooling" concept and schooling is considered synonymous with literacy and learning. If a child has not been to a regular school he/ she has not learnt anything. The obsession with school is such that as parents we start sending our kids to "pre-primary" schools the moment they turn 2.
  • The guidance and support system for homeschoolers does not exist and it is/ would be a real struggle for parents to find resources to school their children. Not many parents are aware of the advantages and efforts needed for homeschooling. The parents do need to know the basics of child psychology and about how learning occurs.
  • Many a times, the cost of homeschooling turns out to be more that the traditional schooling.
  • With the trend of "both parents working" having caught up in India, the "time" poses the biggest challenge for parents if they plan to "homeschool". Sending the child/ children to a regular school is much more convenient for the parents.
  • Another harsh reality is that there is a lot of  "business" that thrives on a parent not adopting "Homeschooling", so there is no real encouragement for parents for the same. 
The list can go on but this post aims to provide some food for thought on the future of Homeschooling in India.

Friday, December 16, 2011

Can Computers replace Classrooms ? BUT what constitutes a CLASSROOM ?

This post is triggered by an online article and discussion on "Can Computers replace Classrooms ?" Its a simple discussion topic but with deep underlying links to the process of education. The above surely is some food for thought as it triggers us(at least me !) to think "What all constitutes a Classroom ? Aren't we being short-sighted in thinking about the discussion topic itself because Computers and Classrooms are 2 distinct entities. By Classroom do we just refer to the age old model of transacting education (if i may call it so !) or do we treat classroom as an amalgamation of instruction, learner, transaction, interaction, experience and so much more. A better understanding of constitution of a Classroom can only help us decide/ deliberate on whether computers can replace them or not. The purpose of a classroom is much more than a "rendezvous" of teacher and sudents and is like a place where "learning experiences" are created and "learning" imparted.  Classroom is all about the "process of education". As per me the discussion/ question "Can Computers replace Classrooms ?" is irrelevant and is valid as long as we are short-sighted in our perception of "Classroom". Computers (or for that matter any Technology) are great facilitators of Education and Learning. So, lets not confuse the matters by engaging in the replacement debate.

The above are purely my thoughts based on my experience in helping schools and educators adopt ICT/ Technology in Education/ Teaching-Learning.

Saturday, October 8, 2011

35$ Tablet Device by India

"Aakash" - touted as the world's cheapest Tablet Device was launched by the Minister on 5 October 2011. The big question is whether it will survive the litmus test. (Earlier, an experiment to create the cheapest computin device had backfired as during the launch, the computing device turned out to be a storage device.)

This tablet device has been created by Datawind, a UK company and the tablets are likely to be provided to students in various Universities soon. The tablet sets to achieve the task of bridging the digital divide between thos who can afford computer and those who can't. The tablet promises a lot and therefore needs to deliver as there is much at stake this time. 

Though the tablet claims to be the world's cheapest but there surely are many similar ranged devices available (mentioned in the link below). The tablet is aimed at the student segment, both higher education and school education. Whether the tablet aims to achieve digital literacy or educational support is still a question.

Few useful links for the device

The performance and functioning of the device would determine how successful it is in achieving its objective(s)...keeping my fingers crossed till then !!

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

World Teachers' Day - 5 Oct

World Teachers’ Day, held annually on October 5th since 1994 - when it was created by UNESCO - celebrates teachers worldwide. Its aim is to mobilise support for teachers and to ensure that the needs of future generations will continue to be met by teachers.

The theme for this year is "Teachers for gender equality"

Wish all a very Happy Teachers' Day !!!

More info on the same is available on the following links
In India the Teachers' Day is celebrated on  5 Sept in memory of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. It is all about celebrating "being a teacher".

Monday, October 3, 2011

TECHNOLOGY - How much is too much ?

Technology has by far been the most critical leveraging agent in education - be it access, equity, quality or anything else mentioned. But as they say, "too much of anything is bad" and that is exactly what is happening with technology in our schools, colleges and other educational institutions. We are piling on technology like anything without bothering as to whether we are optimally utilising it. Technology pressence in schools has become a "fad" and is gradually losing the "sheen". Hardly any thought is put to "Technology Adoption" or "Technology Integration" and the entire effort and resource in put into buying/ procuring technology. This is leading to a situation of "Technology Over-deployment but Under-Utilisation".

The best way to use technology to the right extent and in an appropriate way is to map its use to learning objectives. Being aware of the available technology tools and then mapping them to our learning objectives go a long way in determining the proper technology usage.

Do remember "Every technology may not serve every subject, topic, teacher or learning objective" . The user's discretion in being selective definitely helps